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Top PCB Industry Trends

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Both consumers and businesses demand more innovative products with advanced technologies and abilities. Therefore, there is a rapid progression and development in electronic technology. Printed Circuit Boards, or PCBs, are one of the most necessary components of every electronic device in today’s world. Launching any technology involves PCBs, and PCBs should adapt to the rising needs of the technologically advanced world. Electronic Device should keep these trends in mind when designing their products.

Let us know in detail what PCBs are before going through the PCB trends.

What are PCBs?

A Printed Circuit Board facilitates the operation and functioning of anything electronic. These minuscule components are the most significant elements of any technology ever invented. A PCB looks like a flat plate having a pattern of conducting material and parts.

Common Uses of PCBs

Any device with an electronic component requires a minimum of one printed circuit board, meaning that PCBs are essential to every industry. Some of the most typical industry usages of PCBs are:

  • Industrial – Manufacturing equipment, assembly machines, and equipment for measuring temperature and pressure need PCBs.
  • Healthcare – Scanning equipment, research tools such as compressors, microscopes and control systems, blood glucose monitors, and blood pressure and heart rate monitors require PCBs.
  • Automotive – PCBs are in control systems, car sensors, and navigation systems.
  • Oil Industry – Monitoring and downhole sensors use PCBs.
  • Lighting – Light-emitting diodes also have PCBs.
  • Military Aerospace – Power supplies, flight systems, hardware, and monitoring and communication equipment cannot function without PCBs.

Current PCB Trends followed by PCB Manufacturers.

The PCB industry is one of the fastest-growing industries, and studies show that the total worth of the sector will be nearly $76 billion by the end of 2025. The newest trends and manufacturing processes are constantly changing to make PCBs satisfy the rising demands.

Let us look at the latest PCB trends:

High-Speed PCBs

In the era of 5G, the need for Speed has greater impact on the PCB design. To meet this growing demand for speed, Hardware design engineers must ensure that PCB Design, Materials and Manufacturing improves the Signal Integrity of the design. PCB designers should understand the impact of Dielectric material, vias, trace length, cross talk, impedance discontinuities on the Signal Integrity and design their PCB.
PCB Designers should also make use of new features in EDA tools that helps design right the first time.

High-Density Interconnect PCBs

There are rapid developments in automation in almost every industrial landscape. New advancements are common in every sector, from military communications and aerospace applications to medical diagnostics tools and wearable technology. Therefore, the need arises for HDI PCBs. High-density interconnects (HDI) PCBs are smaller and lightweight than other PCBs and offer high-speed and reliable signals. These PCBs designed by hardware design engineers provide a proper circuit route with different routing options.
HDI PCBs have improved wiring density and lower smaller trace widths, which allows engineers to stuff more power and functionality into little space. They also decrease the requirement for layering, reducing production expenses. Thus, HDI PCBs are becoming more significant in the latest devices and technology.

Internet of Things (IoT)

Communication is necessary for all products, and it has been made possible through IoT in various ways. The Internet of Things defines the network of physical objects infused with software, sensors, and other technologies for exchanging and transferring data from one device or system to another over the internet. IoT parts are included while manufacturing PCBs, and any IoT gadget requires power, wireless connectivity, and sensors. To satisfy these criteria, it is essential to change the design of PCBs. For instance, smartwatches are getting smaller; thus, they need to fit more functionality within a smaller space. Users also expect the devices to run for a long time, so the PCB designs should have long battery life.
Thus, PCB designers embrace the challenges of meeting all electrical requirements and manufacturing constraints with the ever-shrinking devices.

High Power Boards

The need for high power boards is increasing endlessly. This is due to the growth of electric devices, which demand high voltage boards like 48V and more elevated. There is also a great demand for solar panels that function at 24V or 28V.

Commercial Off-The-Shelf Solutions

These PCBs, known as COTS, have modules, components, and boards. COTS parts can easily be installed into present systems. COTS is extensively used in aerospace sector. Current space development solutions use PCB COTS developed by hardware design engineers to minimize the expenses of significant initiatives and ensure safety, superior quality, and quick completion of projects.

Biodegradable PCBs

Electronic waste problems create a global issue, and biodegradable PCBs are manufactured to minimize these issues. Previously, the problem of disposing of PCBs started with environmental issues as they had chemicals in them and were also undegradable. These issues were resolved when biodegradable PCBs came to be manufactured. Further, the metals such as gold, silver, palladium, gallium, and tantalum are extracted from the chips and reused.

Flex PCBs

A single board manages different functions; thus, a flexible layout is needed for PCB functionality. Flex PCBs can resist harsh environments, such as dropping a phone by mistake to launching a missile. They also provide better reliability and capability and take up little space. Flex PCBs can tackle mode stress and transform it into the required size and shape. Their ability to flexibly attach to any component has resulted in the developing of various new medical instruments.

AI is undoubtedly one of the hottest technical directions of computational photography, and mobile photography is the application that benefits the most. The proportion of AI in machine vision is also becoming very significant in the photography direction and the automotive, industrial, security, and other markets. AI-specific processors or units are completely entering the image processing process.

Tessolve can design and deliver PCBs ranging from single-sided to multilayers, quick-turn samples to production orders, and small quantities to volume manufacture. We cater to all your complex needs.

Tessolve is one of the best professional printed circuit board design center with experienced Design Engineers and in-house Simulation and Mechanical Engineering team. Are you looking for the best-in-class PCB? Contact us right away!

For better assistance from our experienced engineers, email us today sales@tessolve.com.

Key Semiconductor Industry Trends: All You Need to Know in 2022

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As we are all set to enter 2023, the global economy is still reeling from the recent pandemic. However, the semiconductor industry continues to grow. According to a study by the World Semiconductor Trade Statistics Organization (WSTS), the revenue of the global semiconductor industry for 2022 was projected to be 10.1%. However, recently WSTS revised the data to 8.8%. In the meantime, industry insiders generally agree that the global semiconductor capacity shortage trend will run through 2023. However, there are a few key trends as well that are enlisted here. Read on to know more.

Trend#1: 4nm Process Chips Are Commercialized in Batches

Although the complexity and cost of advanced processes below 7nm chips have risen drastically, it is still necessary for those manufacturers who pursue the ultimate chip performance. Since the semiconductor process is gradually approaching the physical limit, chip development must continue to improve performance and reduce power consumption and chip size through changes in transistor architecture, back-end packaging technology, or material breakthroughs.

Trend#2: The Trend of Cross-Border Self-Developed Chips Will Be More Obvious

Nowadays, standard chips can no longer meet the requirements of the world’s top tech giants such as Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Tesla, etc. Due to this, major brands are developing their customized chips rather than relying on semiconductor companies. This trend is actively being followed all over the world. At present, some of the top electronic manufacturers can design their chips. Massive businesses like OPPO, Xiaomi, and Media are already building their semiconductor manufacturing teams.

One of the significant advantages of creating a self-built design team is that they hope to take their destiny into their own hands, especially in the face of the industrial chain crisis that broke out in the last two years. This strategy has proven helpful and received results.

Trend#3: Third-Generation Semiconductor Fabs Increase 8-Inch Capacity

As the first commercial third-generation semiconductor materials, silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) have recently attracted much attention. By 2025, the global power discrete device and module market will reach US$27.4 billion. By this, the market share of SiC and GaN will increase to 17%.

Global wafer manufacturers are actively promoting the commercialization of 8-inch SiC wafers. The explosive growth of applications, such as 5G communications, electric vehicles, and data centers, will also push up the production capacity of SiC and GaN wafers. SiC and GaN wafers are currently limited to 4-6 inches. With the head suppliers in 8-inch wafers, the production capacity of 8-inch wafers of third-generation semiconductors will increase in 2022. Also, the trend of adding 8-inch capacity will continue for years.

Trend#4: Ray Tracing Becomes a Must in GPU Applications

In the last couple of years, real-time ray tracing has rapidly gained popularity in the graphics computing field, even though ray tracing is not a new technology. Industry experts unanimously recognize ray tracing can help create a more realistic light and shadow relationship between 3D objects in the virtual graphics world and visually make the picture more natural.

Regarding desktops, data centers, and professional vision fields, the primary thrust of ray tracing comes from NVIDIA. Also, both AMD and Intel’s GPU offerings were actively following up in 2021. Regarding smartphone technologies, because of the greedy computing power requirements of ray tracing, it will be a little later.

Trend#5: AI Has Deeply Penetrated More Imaging/Visual Markets

AI is undoubtedly one of the hottest technical directions of computational photography, and mobile photography is the application that benefits the most. The proportion of AI in machine vision is also becoming very significant in the photography direction and the automotive, industrial, security, and other markets. AI-specific processors or units are completely entering the image processing process.

Conclusion

With the rise of economic activity, Wakefield Research forecasts that demand for semiconductors and VLSI designs will rebound quickly as businesses worldwide begin to renew their investment in cloud infrastructure, AI, and IoT devices. Even though the semiconductor industry was hit adversely due to supply chain disruption during the pandemic, it will bounce back. At Tessolve, we enable businesses to prepare the technologies and strategies they need to be resilient in the face of change. For more details, email us today at sales@tessolve.com.

Five Reasons to Use System on Modules (SoM) in Embedded System Design

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Time is money, and it must never be wasted. This aphorism applies to everything, including embedded system technology. For this reason, System-on-Modules are so popular right now since they provide all the capabilities you need without requiring you to design, locate, and assemble the components yourself. If this is something new for you, don’t worry. At Tessolve, our team of embedded system development experts are here to help you with the essential guide to understanding SoMs.

What is a System on Modules?

Before delving into any other details, let’s start from the beginning. A module system comprises a small package with all the significant elements of an integrated processing system. This includes everything from processor cores, communication configurations, and memory blocks on a small, production-ready Printed Circuit Board (PCB). A System on Modules is a complete CPU architecture in one tiny container. This approach allows SoM to be embedded in end systems ranging from complicated robots to simple home security cameras.

However, a System on Module should not be confused with a System on a Chip (SoC). An SoC includes a series of crucial compute components, all assembled on one chip. On the contrary, an SoM is based on a board and can include multiple components, and an SoC can be one of these. So, one should keep this in mind while choosing what to incorporate into their technologies.

Blade servers initially led to the development of the system on modules. These small servers were developed to conserve energy use and save storage space. The SOM assembly has been designed in the same sleek style as blade servers, and only the elements necessary for operation are all together in one tiny package. However, this does not prevent them from being used in multiple applications, most of which we will discuss in a moment.

Tessolve provides an extremely integrated software and hardware platform developed for quick advancement and marketing time, along with an assortment of resources and tools for ease of maintenance and scalability of design.

Five Reasons to Use System on Modules (SoM) in Embedded System Design

Now that you understand what system on modules is, let’s start discussing why they must be used in embedded systems:

1. Saves time

The primary reason behind the usage of the system on modules for the embedded device is the time-saving aspect. It takes far less time to build a product based on an SoM than to design a complete system from the start. Creating the CPU infrastructure often takes the most effort when it comes to embedded systems. Instead, one can take advantage of an SoM to save time and effort that could be better spent anywhere else. Tessolve provides the best in class, reliable and secure, embedded SOM solution with integrated wireless connectivity.

2. Customization

System on Modules provides a wide range of features and processor speeds in the same packages. This allows businesses to provide the same carrier board with variable speeds. Customers can easily design custom carrier boards that meet all their requirements without individually thinking about the processor and memory. The issue related to complicated custom cables is also eliminated since most businesses will provide pre-wired connectors that match standard cables. With the help of simple process upgrades and downgrades, anyone can create their dream system without spending their entire budget and a lot of time.

3. Simplicity

Another significant reason is the advancement of semiconductor technologies. Designing an embedded system using a SoC or FPGA requires a significant amount of time and care. Since semiconductors are becoming more and more advanced, there is a lot of information and little nuances to consider during the design process. Instead, one can use an SoM and spend the rest of the time focusing on the personality of your product and taking advantage of the complexity.

4. Development cost

A system on module significantly reduces the development cost of developing an embedded system. As we mentioned at the beginning of the article, time is money, and by spending much less time on development work, most of the engineering expense is minimized.

5. Risk at the end of its useful life

The complications related to the end-of-life product based on a flash chipset or an end-of-life CPU are minimized by using a system of modules. The system may be brought back to life with a simple switch without significant carrier board changes. In addition, customers won’t have to worry about spending a lot of money on boards every year since most SoMs have a lifespan of more than five years.

You can obtain reliable SoMs from Tessolve as we also provide evaluation boards for SoM. Tessolve allows faster time to market for customers by offering a seamless shift from development to production and more.

Software and hardware development

Systems on modules can help achieve edge computing and local data processing without latency. This eliminates the requirement for expert hardware knowledge and experience by providing an intuitive design that anyone can apply. In addition, software developers who interfere with vision applications will appreciate the easily configurable sensors provided by SOMs.

Any hardware developer knows that production needs to be completed as quickly as possible, so limited resources should be focused on the highest-impact tasks. A system on modules provides field-programmable gate array (FPGA) performance and flexibility without all the hassle of PCB design and integration. With a powerful and innovative industrial System-on-Modules, integrated security, sophisticated device management tools and systems software, Tessolve’s embedded solutions minimize the expense of ownership and aid propel OEMs to success in the market.

Security cameras

One of the most common applications of SoMs is security cameras. Many system-on-modules provide 4K vision and video processing capabilities, which makes them ideal for such types of applications. These security cameras not only record videos but also use machine learning to categorize and analyze what they see, consistently delivering accurate real-time data.

Wrapping Up

System-on-Modules are the future of embedded systems development. Some of the examples listed above are just a few of hundreds of applications. Especially during the pandemic, home automation is high on people’s priority list, and most of these embedded devices are made with SoM.

Tessolve has its independent SOM Module Family, MAGIK-2 models, depending on the SMARC/Q7 standard, consisting of an entire software suite involving Device Drivers, assistance for different operating systems permitting efficient productization. SoM by Tessolve supports standard Android SDK that can be personalized for product development needs. Our System-on-Modules solutions and services permit customers to initiate their software development before manufacturing and assists in quick marketing.

Head over to Tessolve and check out our SoMs to start building your dream system today! For better assistance from our experienced engineers, email us today sales@tessolve.com

PCB Stackup Design

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As the name implies, stackup refers to the process of collection of copper and insulation layers that form the PCB before finalizing the board design. With the advent of modern technologies, compact electronics are more than a necessity, and therefore PCB layer stacking is crucial in electronics. For compact design for electronics products, designers believe it is necessary to mount PCBs with multi-layer designs and a 3D appearance. Multilayer hardware design helps to: improve the PCB board’s ability to distribute energy properly, eliminate electromagnetic interference, minimize cross-interference, and support signals at high speeds.

Stackup technologies

With the advent of precision manufacturing, Engineers have options to choose a stackup technology suitable to their requirements. The following factors are considered for a good stackup design: the number of layers, the frequency of the circuit, the Signal and Power Integrity specs and Emission requirements. Different stackup options arise by using combinations of Plated thru vias, Blind & Buried vias and Micro (HDI) vias. Most used stackup technologies are Standard stacking with Plated Thru vias and HDI.

Standard stacking connects Multiple copper layers by Plated Thru vias. The advantage of Standard stacking is it’s straightforward and easier to design and manufacture. The fab yield is more compared to any other stackup technology. Although, designing a dense board with smaller ICs is impossible with Standard stacking.

HDI (High Density Interconnect) stackup, as the name suggests, is best suited for High-Density boards. In a smartphone or tablet, the area is compact, but the PCB must accommodate a lot of circuits in it. HDI stackups are sequentially laminated, multi-layer structures, which help to build such compact boards with components packed on both sides. The laser drilled Micro vias, that connect the layers, are smaller compared to mechanically drilled vias thus helping the compact design. Compared to standard stacking, HDI stacks will consume lesser layers and provide better electrical performance.

Blind vias start from the external layer and end in any internal layer. Buried vias, as the name suggests, start from an inner layer and end in another inner layer. These vias are used when the via stub must be limited or eliminated. Also, they are used when the drill aspect ratio must be lower. The disadvantage is having a greater number of blind vias adds up lamination cycles resulting in higher cost, longer fab lead time, and increased plating thickness on the external layer.

Rules for Proper PCB Stackup Design

Like any other design or product manufacturing, designers need to follow some rules to produce the highest quality products. As you already know, electronics go through several processes which involve different components before producing the final product. Therefore, designers must ensure they identify and follow proven design PCB stack-up best practices. For PCB stack-up design, some rules should be followed to get the best results.

  1. The first and foremost rule is the use of ground planes. They are the best choice due to their ability to route signals in strip lines. In addition, it also plays a vital role in reducing ground noise. Ground noise gets significantly reduced because of the reduced ground impedance.
  2. When it comes to high-speed signals, they must be routed to an intermediate layer that sits between different levels. In this manner, the ground plane acts as a shield and suppresses the radiation emanating from the orbit at maximum speed.
  3. Signal layers must be close to the plane.
  4. Mass planes and power should be carefully connected.
  5. It is necessary to ensure that the configuration is symmetrical.
  6. Signal impedance requirements are met.
  7. It is necessary to consider the thickness of each signal layer.
  8. Moreover, it is also essential to consider the properties of the desired material. Also, pay special attention to such materials’ thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical properties.

Great PCB hardware design means a great deal. Businesses must have quality products and results. As you already know, circuits today operate at extremely high operating speeds, making it extremely necessary to optimize your PCB design. Comprehensive PCB design needs to make this craft an art. The reason for this is that you can have a good design or a bad design. However, a poorly designed product can seriously degrade or affect the performance of an electronic product. Some of the effects of poor PCB design include poor signal submission, low-quality power output, and reduced durability of electronics. To avoid such occurrences, it is recommended to ensure that the PCB is of high-quality design.

Conclusion

PCB stack-up design is essential for both designers and electronic engineers. The ability to come up with high-quality electronics requires several considerations. Without a high-quality PCB design, the product’s quality and performance can be significantly affected. Therefore, designers must ensure the right stackup construction and PCB materials are selected to obtain a high-quality product. A high-quality PCB stack-up goes a long way in getting the highest quality PCB yield and productivity.

Stackups designed for High-speed designs are costlier than those used for non-high-speed applications. Compensating the stackup quality for cost can result in poor signal integrity which makes the PCB unsuitable for High-speed application.

Usually, designers use standard and HDI stack-ups while designing PCB stack-ups since both provide unique features and benefits that appeal to designers and engineers. Businesses can select the most suitable one based on the design and performance they expect from the PCB.

Tessolve PCB team has rich experience in designing complex Stackups. Be it high layer count (60+), Multi-laminate or HDI stackups, Tessolve can support designing a manufacturable, cost-efficient stackup that still meets all the Electrical requirements.

Tessolve works closely with Fabrication shops to create the right stackup at the design stage and run DFM checks in-house which allows us to achieve an incredibly high first-pass acceptance rate and eliminates delays getting designs onto the production floor.

For better assistance from our experienced engineers, email us today sales@tessolve.com

Increased Importance of VLSI Design Ecosystem in India for Worldwide Semiconductor Industry

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In today’s world, semiconductor technologies have the most significant impact on our daily lives. As with engineering products, semiconductors have two parts: the designing aspect and the manufacturing or production part. Both the aspects are coordinated, planned, and organized by VLSI & Embedded engineers all across the industrialized countries in different time zones of the globe for making rapid progress in the field throughout the day.

Likely, India is not an essential contributor to the semiconductor manufacturing sector, but on the other hand, India contributes significantly to the VLSI design sector across the globe. Indian VLSI & Embedded engineers play an essential role in designing VLSI systems for the semiconductor industry.

One of the major factors leading to the remarkable development in the VLSI design sector is the establishment of higher education institutions, including IITs/IISC and other premier institutions, imparting knowledge across the country’s different states. Investing in education will significantly pay off in the future.

Many of them devote themselves to developments in the semiconductor sector, leading to significant advancements in the industry. During the 1980s, most electronics engineers joined premier companies and labs such as Bharat Electronics Ltd, Semiconductor Complex Ltd, the Indian Telephone Industries, etc. They were active in the VLSI design and manufacture in India. Many important private and government companies also marked the industry by planning remarkable strategies and meeting core industry needs while manufacturing indigenous computer systems. Many highly-skilled engineers migrated to foreign countries such as the United States and reached positions of prominence in leading tech companies. The first foreign semiconductor operations center in India was established in Bengaluru in the year 1984 and is known as Texas Instruments. In the following years, multiple talents came together to build a robust infrastructure in the semiconductor industry, VLSI design or silicon design industry, and Indian VLSI & Embedded engineers played a significant part.

What is VLSI?

VLSI or very-large-scale integration is the process of embedding or integrating millions of transistors on a single microchip of silicon semiconductors. The process is of much importance in the contemporary world as it helps build big, more complex chips and memory devices and is utilized in microprocessors and microcontrollers.

The global revenue in the semiconductor sector had crossed USD 440 in 2020, and there has been an increasing demand for producing highly efficient chips that can run advanced modern-day technologies, such as IoT, AR/VR, Cloud, AI/ML, and so on, which are becoming important with every passing day. Growth in consumer electronics, smartphones, computing devices, and other devices has enhanced demand.

Importance of VLSI in Modern Days

VLSI is significant because it is convenient for compact design. It consumes lesser power when compared to a discrete parts circuit, and VLSI can be used for different functions.

Uses of VLSI

  • Sophisticated algorithms can be performed with very little energy by personal entertainment systems.
  • High-definition data videos can be compressed and decompressed smoothly in consumer electronics.
  • Despite a specified function, low-cost terminals require complicated electronics for web browsing.
  • Personal computers and workstations need central processing units and specialized hardware for financial analysis, word-processing, and games.
  • Body functions and other complicated algorithms can be measured through electronic medical systems, and problems can be detected. To identify these complex algorithms, more sophisticated systems are required.

Advantages of VLSI

  1. Minimizes the size of the chips and products.
  2. Enhances the performance and speed of circuits.
  3. Makes the devices cost-effective.
  4. More reliable.
  5. Consumes less power than Discrete components.
  6. Consumes little space.

Contributing Factors to the Improvement in the VLSI Design Sector

  1. Rise of MNCs
  2. The establishment and expansion of multinational companies increased India’s importance in engineering operations. The list of industries is long, and VLSI & Embedded engineers significantly contribute to the brands.

  3. Strong Engineering Services Sector
  4. The business solutions offered by the engineering industry has provided immense flexibility in designing VLSI embedded systems. Although it began as staffing in T&M mode, most successful companies initiated outcome-based project execution, thus sharing greater product design and operation authority.

  5. Expansion of VLSI Education
  6. Many universities have introduced VLSI in the curriculum of fresh graduates. Though the quality of graduates varies, they become productive in a short duration with proper training in the industry to be inducted into the workforce.

  7. A Wide Range of Companies
  8. Many companies have established their design and development centers in India. Intel, Texas Instruments, NXP, Rambus, Qualcomm, Cadence, Synopsys, Mentor Graphics, and Siemens. They have contributed significantly to developing a wide range of products, and their application engineering services improved their competency.

  9. Training Centers
  10. These centers are run by professionals with experience and impart knowledge and skill to passionate engineers who are eager to grab the lucrative opportunities of VLSI design.

  11. Expansion of Operations Across Countries
  12. A lot of work in the semiconductor industry is happening across Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, and Delhi-NCR region. There are high chances that the activity may spread to the other regions.

  13. Final Words
  14. The impact of the VLSI Design ecosystem has been experienced in the past few years. The resonance in hardware design establishments has noted that the proposals of businesses without an engineering design operation were given no consideration. VLSI will continue to power electronic advancement with the endless demand for devices with compact sizes, high performance and functionality, and reliability. The number of job opportunities in India is also expanding rapidly, making designing VLSI embedded systems an attractive career.

Tessolve actively contributes to the global semiconductor industries by efficiently designing and testing VLSI embedded systems. Our experts can resolve all your queries related to VLSI or embedded systems. Visit our website to know more.

For better assistance from our experienced engineers, email us today sales@tessolve.com

Automated Routing for PCB

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Each electronic device comprises several meters of wires and multiple small copper parts. These parts work in unison to run an electronic device successfully, regardless of whether it is a television, smartphone, or remote control. All the wires and parts are attached to a thin-layered board perfectly, also known as a PCB or printed circuit board. Engineers assemble all the components on the surface to provide an organized infrastructure for all the small and separate components to interact and work together.

About PCB Designing

PCBs are made up of conductive material mounted on the insulating material. When PCBs are divided, you get two classes: the single-layer PCB and the double-layer PCB. The difference is that the single-layer PCB has a one-sided conductive coating, and the double layer is coated on both sides.

One way to lessen the heating up of PCB designs is to broaden the traces on the board. It is one of the many routing rules manufacturers follow when developing a PCB design. The more is the distance between the traces; the lesser is the resistance of the current flowing.

Hardware design engineers can introduce advanced technology through automated trace routing in an electronic device.

What Is Automated Routing?

Automated trace routing is a way of designing for the PCB and the integrated circuits. The process of placement is automated by integrating with a PCB. The proper placement for each component of a PCB is identified through the dynamic method.

The automated trace routing method permits you to sanction an automatic routing system that makes all the placements systematically. With the assistance of automated trace routers, the productivity of encoders can increase as they do not have to waste time providing manual routing solutions.

How to Efficiently Achieve PCB Automated Routing

  1. Identify the Number of Layers of PCB
  2. Board size and the amount of routing layers should be considered early during the design process. Suppose the design needs the utilization of high-density ball grid array components. In that case, you must consider the minimum number of routing layers desired for routing the devices—the board size assists in determining the stacking and line width for achieving the required design.

    At the initial stages of designing, it is good to use more layers of the circuit and distribute the copper in an even way to prevent a certain number of signals not abiding by the set rules and requirements at the end and thereby being compelled to add more layers. Careful planning is needed before designing, which helps to minimize many troubles in routing. Hardware design engineers fabricate a design for optimum efficiency.

  3. Design Rules and Restrictions
  4. The routing tool must work as per the proper rules and constraints. Various signal lines have various routing needs, and such memorable signal lines have different classifications. Every signal class has a priority with strict rules, and the rules have a significant impact on the routing tool performance.

  5. The Layout of the Components
  6. For optimizing the assembling process, design for manufacturability regulations put restrictions on the layout of components. If the components are allowed to move by the assembly department, it allows for proper optimization for automated routing. One should consider routing channels and via areas while laying out, and the automatic routing tool can consider only a single signal at a time.

  7. Fan-Out Design
  8. In this phase, every pin of the surface-mount device must have a minimum of one via for the board to perform the circuit reprocessing, inner layer connectivity, and online testing if more connections are required. The routing tool can be made more efficient by using the largest via size and printed routing with the interval set to 50 mils. While performing a fan-out design, you should consider the online test of the circuit.

    After that, the circuit online test design can be done at the beginning of the design and executed afterward in the production process. The kind of via fan-out is selected through the circuit online test and routing path.

  9. Automatic Routing
  10. Routing crucial signals need to consider managing specific electrical parameters while routing, such as minimized distributed inductance and EMC. The input parameters of the automatic routing tool and the effect of the input variables on the routing have to be understood to guarantee the quality of the automatic routing by the printed circuit board manufacturers.

    Generic rules have to be used for automatically routing signals. By putting constraints and prohibiting the routing area from explaining the layers used for a particular signal and the number of vias used, the routing tool can be routed automatically according to the design philosophy of the engineer. If there are no restrictions, every layer can be used for automatic routing, and multiple vias would be created. Some work in terms of finishing may be needed along with other network and signal routing space. When a fraction of the design is completed, the routing process is fixed to prevent it from being altered.

Design Considerations for Automatic Routing Include

  • Modify the settings a little and try different path routing.
  • Keep the fundamental rules unaltered, try various routing layers, different spacing, line widths and printed lines, various kinds of vias such as buried holes, blind holes, and so on to observe how they influence the design results.
  • Allow the routing tools to manage the default networks as required.
  • The less significant the signal, the more the privilege for the automatic routing tool.

Tessolve is one of the best professional printed circuit board manufacturers who excel in the process of automatic routing. They ensure that maximum proficiency is perpetrated through automatic routing. Are you seeking the best-in-class PCBs? Get in touch with us right away!

Ultimate Guide to PCB Layout Design Consideration

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Can you imagine a world without technologies wherein there are no computers, mobile phones, television, automobiles, AC, and airplanes?

Without a proper PCB layout, a device cannot function properly. Creating a PCB board design is the same as completing a piece of art wherein a team of engineers spend weeks or months creating the patterns. Developing a PCB layout is not a cakewalk, but anyone with proper guidance and knowledge can also do it.

With this article, we’ll help you understand a few things that let you design the PCB layout process. Take a look!

What is a PCB Layout?

A layout is characterized by the pattern of laying out parts of a particular item or arranging them meaningfully. In the same way, the PCB layout indicates several processes that are required in designing the printed circuit board. It involves creating traces, mounting holes cutouts, putting labels, specifying locations of various components, etc.

A significant concept in PCB design is wire routing, which is one of the most daunting tasks. Routing is the subsequent step once the placement is done. In the placement part, engineers determine the location of different components on the PCB. In routing, wires are added to connect the components as per the design rules.

PCB designing is done manually & automatically. However, to eliminate human errors these days, the designing is done using various PCB designing software having the auto-router feature. This saves time as well as effort and makes the process even simpler. However, it’s not the best option as the designs are not always precise and symmetrical as they should be.

Elements of PCB Layout

Creating & manufacturing the PCB layout involves some of the following elements:-

  1. Schematics–
  2. It is a diagram of components, connections, and circuits that are laid out in an easy-to-understand way. It’s essential while designing a PCB layout as it helps engineers understand & construct the system of the circuit.

  3. High-Frequency Signals –
  4. The PCBs that support higher frequencies have special requirements. Most of the interfaces used today operate at more than 50 MHz, making it essential to have some knowledge of frequencies to avoid issues with high signals.

    With the advancement in technology, the frequency of signals has become significantly high. Therefore, there is a need to understand signal propagation. Also, it would help if you bridged the gap between analog & digital design.

  5. Routing Signal & Placement of Components –
  6. When it comes to the placement of components & signal routing, one needs to follow the direction in which the signal & current flow in the PCB board design.

    Make sure that you maintain a distance between the digital and analog signals. The analog circuits are sensitive to a digital signal and can even lead to disruptions on the analog side.

Steps Involved in PCB Designing

PCB designing plays a quintessential role at every point of the printed circuit board production process. Creating a PCB design includes six basic steps:

  1. Concept
  2. Once you have identified the need for a PCB, the next step is to conceptualize the board. The initial phase involves defining the PCB’s functions and interconnection with other circuits, features, placements at the final product, and dimensions. Also, one needs to consider the approximate range of temperature and other environmental factors in which it will operate.

  3. Schematic
  4. Once you’re done with the concept, the next step is to draw the circuit schematic based on the finalized concept. It includes all the information needed for the board’s electrical components to function appropriately. Not only this, but it must also include the details, such as component name, rating, value, and manufacturer part number.

    When creating a schematic, don’t forget to create a bill of materials containing information on all the components you need for the PCB.

  5. PCB Mechanical Constraints
  6. You need to define Mechanical constraints such as Board dimension, thickness, cutouts, Mounting holes, Keepout regions, Mating and I/O connector locations.

  7. Component Placement
  8. The next and very critical step in designing a PCB layout is the component’s placement. A proper component placement ensures good electrical connection between Circuits and as well enabling the PCB to be assembled and tested efficiently.

  9. Routing
  10. The next important and tedious task in PCB layout is routing. The performance of High speed interfaces, RF, Analog and High power signals is determined by the routing. A good routing between circuits improves the Signal and Power Integrity of the PCB. While the electrical requirements are taken care, all Manufacturing related constraints to be addressed to improve PCB fab yield.

  11. Validation
  12. This is the final step; after you’ve completed the design, you must run a series of Quality and Manufacturing (DRC) checks to meet all the requirements. The design gets completed once the checks are passed, but if not, you have to go back to the previous phases, where you need to make changes and adjustments.

How Tessolve Provides Turnkey Solutions for PCB Design?

As the leading semiconductor engineering solution provider, Tessolve is determined to serve clients and meet their needs. We develop ATE, system and the evaluation boards that help our customers evaluate their product functionality before mass production. We provide the board developments with a team of experts in High-Speed Processors, Analog, RF domains, and Mixed signals. So, make sure to get the perfect design with a combination of hardware engineering with Tessolve and get the best PCB design that you want.

For better assistance from our experienced engineers, email us today sales@tessolve.com

Embedded System | 9 Main Concepts About Embedded Engineering

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About Embedded System

An embedded system is also termed an integrated system. It is a computer system designed by an embedded engineer to facilitate special functions, and its parts are mounted together onto a motherboard. A microcontroller or a microprocessor that consists of input and output interfaces and a small memory carries out the system’s central processing.

The programing language of the microprocessor or microcontroller, such as C, C++, Linux, and C#, can be used directly to program the systems. Real-time computing tasks can be carried out by designing embedded systems. Specific use cases can be achieved using Tessolve MAGIK-II SOM+CB combination based on various SoCs, i.e., NXP, Qualcomm, TI, Renesas, etc., dedicated to developing and designing prototypes and applications with embedded systems.

Let us dive into detail about the concepts related to designing embedded systems.

What Is a Microprocessor Unit?

The processor initially consisted of separate components interlinked together through buses. For instance, the oscillator and the registers that signal the clock are all individual components. With the development in integration and technology, the various parts were coming together within the same circuit. Therefore, the earlier processor used to have multiple interconnected integrated circuits, and eventually, all the components came to be incorporated within a single circuit, known as a microprocessor.

The microprocessor is a part of the central processing unit (CPU). The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is present within the microprocessor and performs all the mathematical operations. The registers save the data for the moment, and the control unit harmonizes the working of the rest of the parts, that is, a ROM memory in which instructions are stored and other components.

Microprocessors are not used individually but are integrated with other systems for a particular function.

What Is a Microcontroller Unit?

A microcontroller is a computer with limited functionality. They have a simple design with low speed and are small. Computers have a processor and RAM. A microcontroller is an individual chip in which RAM, ROM, processor, and other components are mounted together to aid programmers. DAC and ADC converters are placed together in different formats.

Therefore, they are not designed to manage an extensive software infrastructure. Most of the time, microcontrollers are directly programmed despite an embedded operating system. Because of this finite capability, a wide array of microcontrollers is established by different elements based on their use. The versatility allows you to choose the microcontroller that suits the project’s requirement and is the primary reason they are so favored in embedded systems.

About Development Kit

A development kit is a hardware component that aids in programming and testing another hardware element, such as a microcontroller, FPGA, or microprocessor. Usually, they are boards with the element in question that you would like to use along with different additional elements that simplify prototyping and programming.

The primary purpose is to help engineers learn, who later need to work with microcontrollers and microprocessors. Tessolve MAGIK-II development kits are good platforms based on various MCUs, MPUs/SoCs, and FPGA, which can help set up a development environment quickly and get started directly on application development for learning and POC purpose.

MAGIK-II platforms and their purpose

Tessolve has its own SOM Module Family MAGIK-2 modules based on the SMARC/Q7 standard, containing a complete software suite including Device Drivers, BSP, and support for various OS allowing effective productization. Our SOM & EVK solutions allow Customers to start their software development before manufacturing and help faster time to market.

MAGIK-II SOM family is ready to use a platform based on well know processors from NXP, Qualcomm, Mediatek, Texas Instruments, and Renesas with Linux/Android OS/RTOS support and can be used for learning and developing POCs for application development for use-cases:

  • Industrial
  • Avionics
  • Automotive
  • Medical
  • Internet of Things

About FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays)

The reconfigurable hardware development obtained one of the most significant advantages, namely FPGA. Testing and designing hardware components are a hectic and time-consuming process that involves a lot of costs. There was no way of confirming that it worked until printing a design on a plate, and the printing process required time and money.
FPGAs are the solution to this problem. They are hardware parts interlinked with each other in a configurable manner, allowing you to select the parts you need and link them without printing them on the hardware. Embedded engineers need to use a particular language for the design, namely Hardware Description Language (HDL). An implement offered by the producer of the FPGA transforms that language into closed or open connections in the internal parts of the FPGA. The hardware circuit would remain the same and would perform the same function as it had been printed.

It made the building and designing process more convenient and allowed every design modification to be examined quickly. FPGAs were previously used for designing and prototyping but not as a finished product, whereas now, some FPGAs are being incorporated into the final product.

What Is SoC?

SoC stands for system on a chip and consists of a set of components that were initially separate but have been later integrated into a single chip. A CPU can form SoCs and FPGAs or ESP32, a microcontroller SoC. It is a broad term that incorporates any technology fused within a single chip or board.

What Is DSP?

DSP stands for digital signal processor and is used to deal with digital signals. It has widespread usage in treating video, audio, and telecommunications, and most of the technology we use regularly contains DSPs.

What Are Real-Time Systems?

Real-time systems can maintain exact time measurements that can be utilized in situations where the reaction time is crucial. The validity of results relies on whether the stipulated time limit has been met. All modern cars have control systems that are based on real-time systems.

Designing embedded systems is significant as they play an essential role in our daily lives. All technical devices require embedded systems to function correctly and provide limitless opportunities for every sector. Tessolve has expert embedded engineers who build designs that enhance the efficiency of the embedded systems. For better assistance from our experienced engineers, email us today at sales@tessolve.com.

Tessolve in collaboration with InCore Semiconductor brings to you an open-source RISC-V Core verification tool – RiVer Core

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RiVer Core is a python based extensible and scalable framework aimed at providing a central control point for all major aspects of a RISC-V processor verification flow. The tool is fully open source under the permissive BSD-3 Clause License.
Read this blog to explore more about RiVer Core framework, the major components, its holistic approach and its advantages.

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